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BNL-113176-2016-JA

Cosmology with photometric weak lensing surveys:

Constraints with redshift tomography of convergence peaks and moments

Andrea Petri, Morgan May, and Zoltán Haiman

Submitted to Physical Review D

November 2016

Physics Department

Brookhaven National Laboratory

U.S. Department of Energy USDOE Office of Science (SC),

High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)

Notice: This manuscript has been authored by employees of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under

Contract No. DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up,

irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow

others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

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Cosmology with photometric weak lensing surveys: Constraints with redshift tomography of convergence peaks and moments

Andrea Petri,1,2,* Morgan May,2 and Zoltán Haiman3 1Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA

2Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA 3Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA

(Received 3 May 2016; published 30 September 2016)

Weak gravitational lensing is becoming a mature technique for constraining cosmological parameters, and future surveys will be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state w. When analyzing galaxy surveys, redshift information has proven to be a valuable addition to angular shear correlations. We forecast parameter constraints on the triplet ðΩm; w; σ8Þ for a LSST-like photometric galaxy survey, using tomography of the shear-shear power spectrum, convergence peak counts and higher convergence moments. We find that redshift tomography with the power spectrum reduces the area of the 1σ confidence interval in ðΩm; wÞ space by a factor of 8 with respect to the case of the single highest redshift bin. We also find that adding non-Gaussian information from the peak counts and higher-order moments of the convergence field and its spatial derivatives further reduces the constrained area in ðΩm; wÞ by factors of 3 and 4, respectively. When we add cosmic microwave background parameter priors from Planck to our analysis, tomography improves power spectrum constraints by a factor of 3. Adding moments yields an improvement by an additional factor of 2, and adding both moments and peaks improves by almost a factor of 3 over power spectrum tomography alone. We evaluate the effect of uncorrected systematic photometric redshift errors on the parameter constraints. We find that different statistics lead to different bias directions in parameter space, suggesting the possibility of eliminating this bias via self-calibration.

I. INTRODUCTION

Weak gravitational lensing is a promising technique to probe the large scale structure of the Universe in which the tracers are intrinsically unbiased [1]. This technique has the potential of significantly improving the constraints on the dark energy equation of state parameter w because it is most sensitive to the matter density fluctuations at the nonlinear stage. Cosmology inferences from weak lensing observations have been produced for past (CFHTLenS [2], COSMOS [3]) and current (DES [4]) surveys, and are being planned for future experiments as well (e.g. LSST [5], WFIRST [6], Euclid [7]). Because of the nonlinear nature of the density fluctuations probed by weak lensing, cosmological information might leak from quadratic sta- tistics (such as two-point functions and power spectra) into more complicated non-Gaussian statistics, for which for- ward modeling requires numerical simulations of cosmic shear fields. Several different examples of these non-Gaussian sta-

tistics, and their cosmological information content, have been studied in the past as well (see [8–15] for a non- comprehensive list). The constraining power of weak lensing power spectra with the addition of redshift tomog- raphy information has been extensively investigated in the literature (see e.g. [16–18]). In this work we concentrate on

the constraining power of a subset of non-Gaussian statistics, combined with redshift tomography in a LSST- like survey. The authors of [19] investigated the cosmo- logical constraining power of shear peaks tomography. Previous work on redshift tomography with weak lensing Minkowski functionals is also present in the literature [8]. Tomography relies on assigning accurate redshifts to

galaxies. We therefore also investigate the effects of uncorrected photometric redshift systematics on parameter constraints when using redshift tomography. This work is organized as follows. In Sec. II we outline the shear simulations we use in this work, followed by descriptions of the convergence reconstruction procedure, forward modeling of galaxy shape and photometric redshift sys- tematics, and the parameter-inference techniques we used to forecast constraints on cosmology. In Sec. III we present our main results, which we discuss in Sec. IV. In Sec. V we present our conclusions as well as prospects for future work.

II. METHODS

A. Cosmic shear simulations

We review the procedure used for generating simulated shear catalogs. We consider a fiducial flat ΛCDM universe with parameters ðh;Ωm;ΩΛ;Ωb; w; σ8; nsÞ ¼ ð0.72; 0.26; 0.74; 0.046;−1; 0.8; 0.96Þ [20,21]. We exam- ine different variations of the p ¼ ðΩm; w; σ8Þ triplet and*apetri@phys.columbia.edu

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BNL-113176-2016-JA

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.94.063534 http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.94.063534 http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.94.063534 http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.94.063534

run one N-body simulation for each choice of p, using the public code Gadget2 [22]. The simulations have a comoving box size of Lb ¼ 260 Mpc=h and contain 5123 dark matter particles, which correspond to a mass resolution of Mp ≈ 1010Msun per particle. The largestmode observed in ourN-body simulations cor-

responds to a wave number of kb ≈ 1=Lb ≈ 0.004hMpc−1. For the sake of recovering cosmological information from weak lensing, this limitation does not create a concern, as several authors (see [17] for example) have shown thatmodes above Lb contribute very little to parameter constraints. Moreover, the purpose of this work is to estimate the parameter constraints achievable in a weak lensing analysis incorporating tomography, not to produce simulations accu- rate enough for analyzing the data set that will be available from LSSTand other surveys a decade hence. To analyze the data sets that these surveys will produce, mode couplings between large and small scales, which can cause effects such as super sample covariance [23–25], will need to be included. Baryonic effects will need to be included as well. Larger and more accurateN-body simulation techniques are currently under development in the community for this purpose [26,27]. The three-dimensional outputs of the N-body simula-

tions are sliced in sequences of two-dimensional lenses 120 Mpc thick, which are lined up perpendicular to the line of sight between the observer on Earth and a source at redshift zs. We make use of the multi-lens-plane algorithm [28,29] to trace the deflections of light rays originating at z ¼ 0 through the system of lenses out to redshift z. To accomplish this task, we make use of the LensTools [30,31] implementation of the multi-lens-plane algorithm. An observed galaxy position θ on the sky today corresponds to a real galaxy angular position βðθ; zsÞ, which can be calculated using the LensTools pipeline by solving the ordinary differential lens equations up to redshift zs. The Jacobian of βðθ; zsÞ is a 2 × 2 matrix that contains information about the cosmic shear field at θ integrated along the line of sight:

∂βiðθ;zsÞ ∂θj ¼

� 1− κðθÞ− γ1ðθÞ −γ2ðθÞ

−γ2ðθÞ 1− κðθÞþ γ1ðθÞ

� : ð1Þ

The quantities that appear in Eq. (1) are the convergence κ, which is the source magnification due to lensing, and the cosmic shear γ, which is a measurement of the source ellipticity due to lensing from large scale structure, assum- ing that the nonlensed shape is a circle. We simulate Ng ¼ 106 random galaxy positions

fθgg distributed uniformly in a field of view of size θ2FOV ¼ ð3.5 degÞ2, which correspond to a gala

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