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The solution structure of the prototype foamy virus RNase H domain indicates an important role of the basic loop in substrate binding

Title data

Leo, Berit ; Schweimer, Kristian ; Rösch, Paul ; Hartl, Maximilian J. ; Wöhrl, Birgitta M.:
The solution structure of the prototype foamy virus RNase H domain indicates an important role of the basic loop in substrate binding.
In: Retrovirology. Vol. 9 (2012) Issue 1 . - p. 73.
ISSN 1742-4690
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4690-9-73

Abstract in another language

Background
The ribonuclease H (RNase H) domains of retroviral reverse transcriptases play an essential role in the replication cycle of retroviruses. During reverse transcription of the viral genomic RNA, an RNA/DNA hybrid is created whose RNA strand needs to be hydrolyzed by the RNase H to enable synthesis of the second DNA strand by the DNA polymerase function of the reverse transcriptase. Here, we report the solution structure of the separately purified RNase H domain from prototype foamy virus (PFV) revealing the so-called C-helix and the adjacent basic loop, which both were suggested to be important in substrate binding and activity.
Results
The solution structure of PFV RNase H shows that it contains a mixed five-stranded β-sheet, which is sandwiched by four α-helices (A-D), including the C-helix, on one side and one α-helix (helix E) on the opposite side. NMR titration experiments demonstrate that upon substrate addition signal changes can be detected predominantly in the basic loop as well as in the C-helix. All these regions are oriented towards the bound substrate. In addition, signal intensities corresponding to residues in the B-helix and the active site decrease, while only minor or no changes of the overall structure of the RNase H are detectable upon substrate binding. Dynamic studies confirm the monomeric state of the RNase H domain. Structure comparisons with HIV-1 RNase H, which lacks the basic protrusion, indicate that the basic loop is relevant for substrate interaction, while the C-helix appears to fulfill mainly structural functions, i.e. positioning the basic loop in the correct orientation for substrate binding.
Conclusions
The structural data of PFV RNase H demonstrate the importance of the basic loop, which contains four positively charged lysines, in substrate binding and the function of the C-helix in positioning of the loop. In the dimeric full length HIV-1 RT, the function of the basic loop is carried out by a different loop, which also harbors basic residues, derived from the connection domain of the p66 subunit. Our results suggest that RNases H which are also active as separate domains might need a functional basic loop for proper substrate binding.

Further data

Item Type: Article in a journal
Refereed: Yes
Institutions of the University: Faculties
Faculties > Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Earth Sciences
Faculties > Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Earth Sciences > Department of Chemistry
Faculties > Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Earth Sciences > Department of Chemistry > Chair Biopolymers
Faculties > Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Earth Sciences > Department of Chemistry > Former Professors > Chair Biopolymers - Univ.-Prof. Dr. Paul Rösch
Faculties > Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Earth Sciences > Department of Chemistry > Former Professors
Faculties > Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Earth Sciences > Department of Chemistry > Chair Biopolymers > Lehrstuhl Biopolymere - Apl. Prof. Dr. Birgitta Wöhrl
Result of work at the UBT: Yes
DDC Subjects: 500 Science > 500 Natural sciences
500 Science > 540 Chemistry
500 Science > 570 Life sciences, biology
Date Deposited: 14 Jan 2015 07:45
Last Modified: 15 May 2019 08:32
URI: https://eref.uni-bayreuth.de/id/eprint/5487