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Characterization of Sand and Sand-Binder Systems from the Foundry Industry with Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

Title data

Bifano, Luca ; Fischerauer, Alice ; Liedtke, Alfred ; Fischerauer, Gerhard:
Characterization of Sand and Sand-Binder Systems from the Foundry Industry with Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy.
In: Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems. Vol. 10 (February 2021) Issue 1 . - pp. 43-51.
ISSN 2194-878X
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/jsss-10-43-2021

Official URL: Volltext

Project information

Project financing: Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kunst

Abstract in another language

The global economy consumes an estimated 4×10^10 t of sand per year, with only 2×10^10 t of sand being reproduced by natural sedimentation (Götze and Göbbels, 2017; Peduzzi, 2014). Among other things, sand is also used as a basic material for the production of molds and cores in the foundry industry. The consumption and the economic as well as ecological savings' potential in this area of application can be appreciated by way of an example: the environmental certificate of a single, albeit big German foundry (5160 employees) can be consulted, which states that 39 820 t of sand for casting molds had to be purchased in 2017 (Denes, 2018). In order to avoid having to dispose of the used sand in landfills and to reduce the use of new sand, it is therefore advantageous to renew the used sand in a so-called regeneration process and reuse it as a substitute for new sand in the production of molds and cores. It would be very advantageous if the condition of molding materials (sand–binder systems) in regenerator units could be monitored in real time because of the economic and ecological advantages of a monitored and optimized regeneration process. This work presents the results of investigations in this direction. The objects of investigation in this work are typical molding materials in the foundry industry, e.g., quartz sand, chromite sand, and bentonite as a binder, which are measured impedimetrically with the help of a plate capacitor measuring cell which is connected to an LCR meter (Agilent E4980A). The impedance of the filled capacitor is measured in a frequency range from 1.2 kHz to 1 MHz, containing 123 frequency points. The aim of this research is to work out if the mentioned substances can be measured with the presented measuring method and classified on the basis of impedance characteristics and thus whether impedance spectroscopy can be considered for process monitoring in the molding industry. It is shown that the condition monitoring can possibly be based on impedance spectroscopy because the resulting curves are characteristic of the material used. New and used sands as well as two-component mixtures of sands and binders showed a systematic behavior, which allows the sand or the composition of the mixture to be identified (classified) in the future. The examination of the scatter of the measurement results shows that the impedance data obtained with this method can be measured reproducibly. A descriptive model for multi-component systems is developed in order to be able to interpret the impedance scatter results and their representation in Nyquist plots. From this model, the filling density of the measurement cell and the density of conduction paths can be extracted as essential influence quantities.

Further data

Item Type: Article in a journal
Refereed: Yes
Institutions of the University: Faculties > Faculty of Engineering Science
Faculties > Faculty of Engineering Science > Chair Measurement and Control Technology > Chair Measurement and Control Technology - Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gerhard Fischerauer
Profile Fields > Emerging Fields
Profile Fields > Emerging Fields > Energy Research and Energy Technology
Research Institutions > Research Units > ZET - Zentrum für Energietechnik
Result of work at the UBT: Yes
DDC Subjects: 600 Technology, medicine, applied sciences > 620 Engineering
Date Deposited: 01 Mar 2021 13:07
Last Modified: 01 Mar 2021 13:07
URI: https://eref.uni-bayreuth.de/id/eprint/63495