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Hot ambiance or chaos in the stands? Attitudes of active fans toward ultra groups in german football

Title data

Reichel, Kristoff ; Kurscheidt, Markus:
Hot ambiance or chaos in the stands? Attitudes of active fans toward ultra groups in german football.
Event: 9th World Congress on Science & Football , 04.-07. Juni 2019 , Melbourne, Australia.
(Conference item: Conference , Speech )

Abstract in another language

The Ultras are known for their hot support of the team during the game and for their impressive choreographies. While this is much appreciated by other fans and football officials, the Ultras are also associated with disorder, excessive use of pyrotechnics and fan violence. Thus, the Ultras have become the most controversial supporter group in European football (Joern & Havelund, 2018). Therefore, the question arises whether the Ultras contribute to a value co-creation or rather a value co-destruction in the stadia (Stieler, Weismann, & Germelmann, 2014). This is investigated based on the attitudes of non-Ultra active fans in Germany who frequently attend matches in the stadia.

An online survey was placed in German fan fora. The questionnaire has been tested in previous surveys. Notably, the item battery on the attitudes, measured in five-point Likert scales, toward Ultras has been added. In addition, the questionnaire covers self-reported fan behaviour, supporter organisation, attitudes toward current controversial issues in German football and socio-demographics. N=971 valid responses entered the regression analysis with 15 independent variables on the fan behaviour and mind-set of respondents while constructs of attitudes toward the value co-creation/destruction by the Ultras were selected as dependent variables.

Results & discussion:
It is found that the vast majority of active fans appreciate the Ultras. Most fans even believe that the Ultras have a positive impact on the marketisation of German football. The respondents also criticise instances of misconduct of the Ultras. However, the active fans balance the pros and cons of the contribution of the Ultras and tend to an overall positive attitude.

Unlike the general public, the active fans, i.e., frequent stadium attendees, show a balanced positive view of the Ultras. The important stakeholder group of regular stadium visitors seem to be attracted by the ambiances created by the Ultras. Hence, there is evidence in German football that the Ultras have a tangible impact on value co-creation. This should be more accepted by football officials.

Further data

Item Type: Conference item (Speech)
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: Fan Culture; Ultras; Supporters
Institutions of the University: Faculties > Faculty of Cultural Studies > Department of Sport Science > Chair Sport Science II - Sport Governance and Event Management
Faculties > Faculty of Cultural Studies
Faculties > Faculty of Cultural Studies > Department of Sport Science
Result of work at the UBT: Yes
DDC Subjects: 700 Arts and recreation > 790 Sports, games, entertainment
Date Deposited: 20 Apr 2020 07:58
Last Modified: 15 Feb 2022 12:03