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Swahili Loanwords in Gorwaa and Iraqw : Phonological and Morphological Observations

Title data

Harvey, Andrew ; Mreta, Abel Yamwaka:
Swahili Loanwords in Gorwaa and Iraqw : Phonological and Morphological Observations.
In: Kiswahili. Vol. 79 (2016) Issue 1 . - pp. 156-177.
ISSN 0023-1886
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2527517

Official URL: Volltext

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Abstract in another language

When Swahili words are borrowed into Gorwaa and Iraqw, they are typically nativized according to a series of observable patterns. This work offers an account of how Swahili borrowings are integrated phonologically and morphologically into these languages. Phonologically, non-native phonemes are typically replaced by native sounds which are featurally similar to the original Swahili phoneme, and where no such similar phoneme exists, the non-native sound is tolerated. In order to repair words whose etymon begins with a syllabic nasal, either a vowel is inserted to break up the cluster, or the initial nasal is deleted. Vowels are very often lengthened on the stressed (penultimate) syllable. Where Swahili words do not violate any phonological rule, they are adopted without change. Morphologically, borrowed verbs are assigned a verbal derivational ending to identify the forms as verbs. The gender system of Swahili differs markedly from Gorwaa and Iraqw, and, as such, every borrowed noun must be assigned a gender. Typically (but not always), this is done according to the phonetic form of the noun. Nouns ending in round vowels are assigned masculine gender and nouns ending in the front vowel are assigned feminine gender. Pluralizing forms whose base is singular, or singularizing forms whose base is plural are more complicated, with a series of weakly productive rules operating to assign number suffixes to base forms. This results in a high number of irregular forms.

Abstract in another language

Maneno ya Kiswahili yanapokopwa kwenda Kigorowa na Kiiraqw, kwa kawaida hutoholewa kufuatana na mtiririko wa miundo inayoweza kubainika. Kazi hii inaeleza namna maneno ya mikopo ya Kiswahili inavyoingizwa kifonetiki na kimofolojia kwenye lugha hizi mbili. Kifonetiki, fonimu ambazo hazipo kwenye Kigorowa na Kiiraqw hubadilishwa na sauti zinazofanana na sauti ya Kiswahili kwa sifa. Kama sauti inayofanana haipo kwenye Kigorowa na Kiiraqw, sauti ya Kiswahili huasiliwa. Kutohoa maneno ambayo huanza na konsonanti ya silabi ya nasal (syllabic nasal), aidha irabu huingizwa kutenganisha konsonanti zinazofuatana, au nazali ya mwanzo hufutwa. Mara nyingi, irabu hurefushwa kweye silabi yenye mkazo (ambayo, kwenye Kigorowa na Kiiraqw ni ya pili kutoka mwisho). Maneneo ya Kiswahili yasiyovunja kanuni za kifonolojia huongezwa kwenye Kigorowa na Kiiraqw bila mabadiliko. Kuhusu mofolojia, vitenzi vya mikopo hupewa kiambishi tamati nyambulishi (verbal derivational suffix) kuyatambua maneno haya kama vitenzi. Mfumo ya jinsi ya Kiswahili ni tofauti sana na ile ya Kigorowa na Kiiraqw, hivyo, ni lazima kila nomino mkopo kupewa jinsi. Kwa kawaida (lakini sio kila mara) hii hufanyika kufuatana umbo la kifonetiki la nomino. Nomino zinazoishia na irabu za umbo la duara hupewa jinsi ya kiume, na nomino zinazoishia na irabu za mbele hupewa jinsi ya kike. Kutengeneza uwingi kutoka maneno ambayo msingi yake ni umoja, au kutengeneza umoja kutoka maneno ambaye msingi yake ni uwingi ni vigumu zaidi kuelewa kwa sababu ya kanuni kadhaa zinazozalisha sana ambazo huyapa kiambishi tamati ya namba. Hii husababisha maumbo mengi ya ughairi.

Further data

Item Type: Article in a journal
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: Swahili; Gorwaa; Iraqw; loanwords; phonology; morphology; gender; number
Institutions of the University: Faculties > Faculty of Languages and Literature
Faculties
Faculties > Faculty of Languages and Literature > Junior Professor African Languages and the Construction of Knowledge > Junior Professor African Languages and the Construction of Knowledge - Juniorprof. Dr. Andrew Harvey
Faculties > Faculty of Languages and Literature > Junior Professor African Languages and the Construction of Knowledge
Result of work at the UBT: No
DDC Subjects: 400 Language > 410 Linguistics
400 Language > 490 Other languages
Date Deposited: 27 Jun 2022 11:12
Last Modified: 13 Mar 2023 09:25
URI: https://eref.uni-bayreuth.de/id/eprint/70156