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Oligocene niche shift, Miocene diversification - Cold tolerance and accelerated speciation rates in the St. John's Worts (Hypericum, Hypericaceae)

Title data

Nürk, Nicolai M. ; Uribe-Convers, Simon ; Gehrke, Berit ; Tank, David C. ; Blattner, Frank R.:
Oligocene niche shift, Miocene diversification - Cold tolerance and accelerated speciation rates in the St. John's Worts (Hypericum, Hypericaceae).
In: BMC Evolutionary Biology. Vol. 15 (May 2015) . - No. 80.
ISSN 1471-2148
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-015-0359-4

Abstract in another language

BackgroundOur aim is to understand the evolution of species-rich plant groups that shifted from tropical into cold/temperate biomes. It is well known that climate affects evolutionary processes, such as how fast species diversify, species range shifts, and species distributions. Many plant lineages may have gone extinct in the Northern Hemisphere due to Late Eocene climate cooling, while some tropical lineages may have adapted to temperate conditions and radiated; the hyper-diverse and geographically widespread genus Hypericum is one of these.ResultsTo investigate the effect of macroecological niche shifts on evolutionary success we combine historical biogeography with analyses of diversification dynamics and climatic niche shifts in a phylogenetic framework. Hypericum evolved cold tolerance c. 30 million years ago, and successfully colonized all ice-free continents, where today ~500 species exist. The other members of Hypericaceae stayed in their tropical habitats and evolved into ~120 species. We identified a 15–20 million year lag between the initial change in temperature preference in Hypericum and subsequent diversification rate shifts in the Miocene.ConclusionsContrary to the dramatic niche shift early in the evolution of Hypericum most extant species occur in temperate climates including high elevations in the tropics. These cold/temperate niches are a distinctive characteristic of Hypericum. We conclude that the initial release from an evolutionary constraint (from tropical to temperate climates) is an important novelty in Hypericum. However, the initial shift in the adaptive landscape into colder climates appears to be a precondition, and may not be directly related to increased diversification rates. Instead, subsequent events of mountain formation and further climate cooling may better explain distribution patterns and species-richness in Hypericum. These findings exemplify important macroevolutionary patterns of plant diversification during large-scale global climate change.

Further data

Item Type: Article in a journal
Refereed: Yes
Additional notes: BAYCEER141645
Keywords: Adaptive landscape; BAMM; Bayou; Divergence time estimation; Climate change; Cold tolerance; Diversification rate shifts; Historical biogeography; Hypericum (St. John’s wort Hypericaceae); Niche shift
Institutions of the University: Research Institutions
Research Institutions > Research Centres
Research Institutions > Research Centres > Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research- BayCEER
Faculties > Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Earth Sciences > Department of Biology > Chair Plant Systematics
Faculties
Faculties > Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Earth Sciences
Faculties > Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Earth Sciences > Department of Biology
Result of work at the UBT: Yes
DDC Subjects: 500 Science
Date Deposited: 24 Jan 2018 06:56
Last Modified: 24 Jan 2018 06:56
URI: https://eref.uni-bayreuth.de/id/eprint/41436