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Microbial responses to chitin and chitosan in oxic and anoxic agricultural soil slurries

Titelangaben

Wieczorek, Adam S. ; Hetz, Stefanie ; Kolb, Steffen:
Microbial responses to chitin and chitosan in oxic and anoxic agricultural soil slurries.
In: Biogeosciences. Bd. 11 (2014) Heft 12 . - S. 3339-3352.
ISSN 1726-4189
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-3339-2014

Abstract

Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer in terrestrial ecosystems and is subject to microbial degradation. Chitin can be deacetylated to chitosan or can be hydrolyzed to N,N´-diacetylchitobiose and oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Which pathway of chitin hydrolysis is preferred by soil microbial communities has previously been unknown. Supplementation of chitin stimulated microbial activity under oxic and anoxic conditions in agricultural soil slurries, whereas chitosan had no effect. Thus, the soil microbial community likely was more adapted to chitin as a substrate. In addition, this finding suggested that direct hydrolysis of chitin was preferred to the pathway that starts with deacetylation. Chitin was apparently degraded by aerobic respiration, ammonification, and nitrification to carbon dioxide and nitrate under oxic conditions. When oxygen was absent, fermentation products (acetate, butyrate, propionate, hydrogen, carbon dioxide) and ammonia were detected, suggesting that butyric and propionic acid fermentation were along with ammonification likely responsible for apparent anaerobic chitin degradation. In total, 42 different chiA genotypes were detected of which twenty were novel at an amino acid sequence dissimilarity of >50%. Various chiA genotypes responded to chitin supplementation and affiliated with a novel deep-branching bacterial chiA genotype (anoxic conditions), genotypes of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria (oxic and anoxic conditions), and Planctomycetes (oxic conditions). Thus, this study provides evidence that detected chitinolytic bacteria were catabolically diverse and occupied different ecological niches with regard to oxygen availability enabling chitin degradation under various redox conditions at the level of the community.

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Publikationsform: Artikel in einer Zeitschrift
Begutachteter Beitrag: Ja
Zusätzliche Informationen: BAYCEER122344
Institutionen der Universität: Fakultäten > Fakultät für Biologie, Chemie und Geowissenschaften > Fachgruppe Biologie > Lehrstuhl Ökologische Mikrobiologie
Forschungseinrichtungen > Forschungszentren > Bayreuther Zentrum für Ökologie und Umweltforschung - BayCEER
Fakultäten
Fakultäten > Fakultät für Biologie, Chemie und Geowissenschaften
Fakultäten > Fakultät für Biologie, Chemie und Geowissenschaften > Fachgruppe Biologie
Forschungseinrichtungen
Forschungseinrichtungen > Forschungszentren
Titel an der UBT entstanden: Ja
Themengebiete aus DDC: 500 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik
Eingestellt am: 22 Jul 2015 05:41
Letzte Änderung: 25 Sep 2015 10:11
URI: https://eref.uni-bayreuth.de/id/eprint/16971