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The Current Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity Associated with Demographic Factors among Pakistan School-Aged Children and Adolescents : An Empirical Cross-Sectional Study

Title data

Tanveer, Moazzam ; Hohmann, Andreas ; Roy, Nadeem ; Zeba, Asifa ; Tanveer, Umar ; Siener, Maximilian:
The Current Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity Associated with Demographic Factors among Pakistan School-Aged Children and Adolescents : An Empirical Cross-Sectional Study.
In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Vol. 19 (15 September 2022) Issue 18 . - No. 11619.
ISSN 1660-4601
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811619

Official URL: Volltext

Abstract in another language

Purpose: This study investigated the most recent estimates of underweight, overweight, and obesity prevalence in Pakistani school-aged children and adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenience random clustered sampling approach with 3,551 Pakistani school children aged 9 to 17 years from 52 schools throughout seven districts in central Punjab province. The CDC US 2000 was used to define underweight (BMI < 5th percentile), overweight (85th ≤ BMI < 95th percentile), and obesity (95th percentile ≤ BMI) for different school grade cohorts (primary, middle, secondary, and higher secondary schools). As a trend test, the Chi-square test was used. A Spearman correlation analysis (r) was used to determine the correlations between demographic variables and weight status. A regression analysis was conducted to explore the predictive power of demographic factors in relation to body weight. Results: In Pakistani school-aged children and adolescents, the prevalence of underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity was 21.9%, 66.9%, 5.8%, and 5.4%, respectively. Significant correlations with body weight status were shown for individual demographic parameters (age, gender, school type, and school grade). Children in urban areas were more likely to be underweight, overweight, or obese than those in rural areas. Boys were found to have a lower BMI than girls. Accordingly, more boys than girls were underweight (odds ratio (OR) = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.33–1.85) and more girls had a higher risk of obesity than boys (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.03–1.86). Lower grades showed more underweight (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.39–1.99) whereas higher grades showed a higher risk of obesity (OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.41–2.57). Conclusions: In Pakistani school-aged children and adolescents, underweight, overweight, and obesity were prevalent. Compared with studies from 2011, the risk of overweight and obesity in Pakistan has decreased. However, this may also be due to the fact that students in Pakistan have a lower BMI compared to other countries. This issue has also been seen in the present study and is confirmed here by the high number of cases of underweight students. Future research studies should look into additional weight status correlates and factors. To evaluate the association between weight status and behavioral and other health variables, future research should use longitudinal or interventional designs.

Further data

Item Type: Article in a journal
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: body weight status; demographics; Pakistan; children; adolescents; body mass index
Institutions of the University: Faculties > Faculty of Cultural Studies > Department of Sport Science > Chair Sport Science I - Training Science and Kinesiology
Faculties > Faculty of Cultural Studies > Department of Sport Science > Chair Sport Science I - Training Science and Kinesiology > Chair Sport Science I - Training Science and Kinesiology - Univ.-Prof. Dr. Andreas Hohmann
Result of work at the UBT: Yes
DDC Subjects: 300 Social sciences > 360 Social problems, social services
600 Technology, medicine, applied sciences > 610 Medicine and health
700 Arts and recreation > 790 Sports, games, entertainment
Date Deposited: 21 Nov 2022 08:19
Last Modified: 21 Nov 2022 08:19
URI: https://eref.uni-bayreuth.de/id/eprint/72838