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A novel solid-state synthesis route for high voltage Na₃V₂(PO₄)₂F₃₋₂ᵧO₂ᵧ cathode materials for Na-ion batteries

Title data

Akhtar, Mainul ; Arraghraghi, Hafssa ; Kunz, Sylvia ; Wang, Qingsong ; Bianchini, Matteo:
A novel solid-state synthesis route for high voltage Na₃V₂(PO₄)₂F₃₋₂ᵧO₂ᵧ cathode materials for Na-ion batteries.
In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A. Vol. 11 (2023) Issue 46 . - pp. 25650-25661.
ISSN 2050-7496
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/D3TA04239A

Abstract in another language

Polyanionic compounds, particularly Na3V2(PO4)2F3−2yO2y (NVPF3−2yO2y, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1), have emerged as promising cathode materials for Na-ion batteries since they demonstrate electrochemical performances comparable or even superior to most layered transition metal oxides. However, numerous discrepancies are reported in the literature regarding the solid-state synthesis of NVPF3−2yO2y compounds (especially Na3V2(PO4)2F2O and Na3V2(PO4)2FO2). Herein, we report the successful solid-state synthesis of phase pure NVPF3−2yO2y (y = 0, 0.5, 1) compounds from a new reaction pathway using the pyrophosphate (VO)2P2O7 as a precursor. We demonstrate that the novel reaction route offers a more direct pathway to phase pure compounds by combining in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) during calcination and theoretical calculations (Density Functional Theory). The latter shows that the new pyrophosphate route is thermodynamically favourable as compared to the previously reported ones involving VOPO4. High temperature in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to observe the structural evolution during synthesis of NVPF3−2yO2y compounds from either VOPO4 or (VO)2P2O7 sources, clearly showing a direct pathway to the final products, with crystallization starting at temperatures as low as 350–450 °C. The desired quality of the products has been verified by XRD, combined with X-ray absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which confirmed the expected V oxidation state. Finally, we have verified the excellent energy storage performances of the NVPF3−2yO2y compounds in Na half cells with realistic areal mass loading of the electrodes and despite the absence of conducting coating on the surface. The intermediate material with y = 0.5 appears particularly promising both in terms of rate capability and capacity retention, thanks to the fully single-phase reaction mechanism during charge/discharge. Our work expands the range of available synthesis reaction routes for NVPF3−2yO2y materials, offering the possibility to better control the oxidation state of V, the stoichiometry in terms of O/F content and the crystal structure, and ultimately the resulting electrochemical performance.

Further data

Item Type: Article in a journal
Refereed: Yes
Institutions of the University: Faculties > Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Earth Sciences > Department of Chemistry
Faculties > Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Earth Sciences > Department of Chemistry > Lehrstuhl Anorganische Aktivmaterialien für elektrochemische Energiespeicher
Research Institutions > Central research institutes > Bayerisches Zentrum für Batterietechnik - BayBatt
Faculties
Faculties > Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Earth Sciences
Research Institutions
Research Institutions > Central research institutes
Result of work at the UBT: Yes
DDC Subjects: 500 Science > 500 Natural sciences
500 Science > 540 Chemistry
600 Technology, medicine, applied sciences > 620 Engineering
Date Deposited: 24 Nov 2023 09:24
Last Modified: 12 Jan 2024 13:14
URI: https://eref.uni-bayreuth.de/id/eprint/87848