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Widespread Occurrence of the Highly Toxic Dimethylated Monothioarsenate (DMMTA) in Rice Globally

Title data

Dai, Jun ; Tang, Zhu ; Gao, A-Xiang ; Planer-Friedrich, Britta ; Kopittke, Peter M. ; Zhao, Fang-Jie ; Wang, Peng:
Widespread Occurrence of the Highly Toxic Dimethylated Monothioarsenate (DMMTA) in Rice Globally.
In: Environmental Science & Technology. Vol. 56 (2022) Issue 6 . - pp. 3575-3586.
ISSN 0013-936X
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c08394

Abstract in another language

Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice is of global concern for human health and international trade. Rice is typically reported to contain inorganic As (iAs) and dimethylated arsenate (DMA), with current food guidelines limiting toxic iAs but not less-toxic DMA. Here, we show that the highly toxic dimethylated monothioarsenate (DMMTA) is also found in rice worldwide and has been unknowingly determined as less-toxic DMA by previous routine analytical methods. Using enzymatic extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) analysis with a C18 column, DMMTA was detected in rice grains (n = 103) from a field survey from China and in polished rice grains (n = 140) from a global market-basket survey. Concentration ranged from <0.20 to 34.8 μg/kg (median 10.3 μg/kg), accounting for 0 to 21% of total As. A strong linear correlation was observed in all rice samples between DMA and DMMTA (being 30 ± 8% of DMA) concentrations. This robust relationship allows an estimation of DMMTA in rice grains from the DMA data reported in previous market-basket surveys, showing a general global geographical pattern with DMMTA concentration increasing from the equator toward high-latitude regions. Based on the global occurrence and potential high toxicity, DMMTA in rice should be considered in health risk assessments and for setting food regulations.

Further data

Item Type: Article in a journal
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: Arsenic; Food safety; Geographic pattern; Thiolation; Rice; DMA
Institutions of the University: Faculties > Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Earth Sciences > Department of Earth Sciences > Professor Environmental Geochemistry Group > Professor Environmental Geochemistry - Univ.-Prof. Dr. Britta Planer-Friedrich
Profile Fields > Advanced Fields > Ecology and the Environmental Sciences
Research Institutions > Research Centres > Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research- BayCEER
Result of work at the UBT: No
DDC Subjects: 500 Science > 550 Earth sciences, geology
Date Deposited: 11 Apr 2022 08:59
Last Modified: 11 Apr 2022 08:59
URI: https://eref.uni-bayreuth.de/id/eprint/68738